Industrial water reuse broadly refers to the use of recycled water for uses other than irrigation or groundwater recharge. Use of recycled water by industry has increased substantially in the last two decades due to increases in the cost of drinking water, combined with on-again/off-again water shortages that can limit business activities. Cooling water systems are the largest industrial applications for recycled water, due to the large water demand in their cooling towers and boilers. Other industrial applications include chemical plants, metal finishers, textile and carpet dying, paper manufacturing, cement manufacturers, and other cooling and process applications. Recycled water can also be used for dust control and soil compaction at construction sites, commercial laundries, carwash facilities, as well as toilet flushing.